|Common Error Codes, Startup Messages, and Icons from the Boot Sequence for DOS, Windows 3.x, and Windows 95|
|Correcting a Startup or Boot Problem|
|Creating an Emergency Boot Disk with Utilities Installed|
|Recognizing Windows-Specific Printing Problems|
|Common Problems and Causes|
|DOS- and Windows-Based Utilities and Commands/Switches|
|Installing and Configuring DOS Applications, and Potential Problems in Windows 95|
|Viruses and Virus Types|
Common Error Codes, Startup Messages, and Icons from the Boot Sequence for DOS, Windows 3.x, and Windows 95All operating systems that have ever been produced have provided some type of error codes to alert the operator to troubles. Unfortunately, many of these error codes are a bit difficult to understand. As we progress into the future, these error codes and startup messages have and will continue to become less incomprehensible. In this section, we discuss some of the common error codes and startup messages, and what they really mean.
|Incorrect DOS version|
|Error in CONFIG.SYS line XX|
|Bad or missing COMMAND.COM|
This problem should be fixed by using applications that were created for the version of DOS that you are using. As a workaround, the SETVER utility can be used to make applications think that they are running on the version of DOS that they want to be running on. To use SETVER, follow the instructions provided when you type "SETVER /?".
|HIMEM.SYS not loaded|
|Unable to Initialize Display Adapter|
|A device referenced in the WIN.INI could not be found|
|Missing or Corrupt HIMEM.SYS|
|No Operating System Found|
|VFAT Initialization Failure|
|Bad or Missing COMMAND.COM|
Exercise 12-1 Creating an Emergency Boot Disk
- Insert a floppy disk into your floppy drive
- Click the Start button and choose Settings | Control Panel.
- Double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon.
- Select the Startup Disk tab on the far right.
- Click on the Create Disk button.
|Print spool is stalled|
|Driver is set for bi-directional mode with a uni-directional cable|
|Incorrect/incompatible driver for printer|
|Printer port not setup correctly in device manager|
|Printer is not set to print to correct port|
An incorrect port setting can be changed from the Details tab of the Printer Properties dialog box
The first course of action that should be taken is to reboot the system. If the problem still continues, removing and reinstalling the network drivers usually takes care of any problems. If the problem is still not solved, it is best to start troubleshooting the network for other difficulties, and determine if the problem is with the particular workstation.
Microsoft Diagnostics provides a good survey or the system’s features in one easy-to-read format
Exam Watch: The Microsoft Diagnostics utility can be used to provide information about the system. This information can be valuable in determining if a workstation is capable of being upgraded
MEM.EXE can be used to provide information on the memory that is installed in the system and how much of it is available
FDISK.EXE can be used to create and delete partitions on a hard disk drive
FDISK/MBR can be used to replace the Master Boot Record with a backup copy. This may become necessary if the Master Boot Record becomes infected with a virus. FDISK/MBR is not destructive in any way unless the computer has a third-party boot program installed. These programs are found frequently in older systems with hard drives larger than 540 megabytes installed in them.
|To make the file . . .||I would use the command . . .|
|C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT hidden and read-only||attrib c:\autoexec.bat +h +r|
|C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT unhidden||attrib c:\autoexec.bat –h|
|C:\AUTOEXEC.BAT system, read-only, not hidden, and archive||attrib c:\autoexec.bat +s +r -h +a|
|All files in the C:\INFO directory read only||attrib c:\info +r|
|All files in the C:\INFO directory and all subdirectories||attrib c:\info +r /s|
|System General Properties|
Scandisk can be used to detect and fix most drive corruption problems
Device manager lists all of the devices that are installed in the system and their properties
SYSEDIT is a tool that enables you to edit the system configuration files from one easy interfaceThe files that SYSEDIT.EXE enables you to edit are:
The Control Panel provides a method of modifying the configuration of the computer
Figure 12-10: The Windows 95 Registry Editor is capable of changing nearly setting on the computer
EXAM WATCH: The Windows 95 Registry Editor can be used to change any of the settings of the system that are stored in the registry. The Registry Editor can cause irreparable harm without any warning.
The Memory tab of the Shortcut Properties dialog box can be used to specify how much memory is given to application
The Screen tab of Shortcut Properties dialog box can be used to specify the display mode in which an application starts
the direct access of any hardware by applications and will repeatedly cause illegal operations in the event that the application attempts this. The best solution to an application that frequently causes illegal operations errors is to force the application to run in MS-DOS mode. Applications can be forced to run in MS-DOS mode by clicking on the Advanced button from the Program panel of the Shortcut Properties dialog box, as shown in Figure 12-13. If MS-DOS mode is then checked, the application automatically enters MS-DOS mode (after warning you to save all your work in other applications).
The Advanced Program Settings dialog box can be used to force an application to run in MS-DOS mode
Exercise 7-1 Closing a Program That Is Not Responding
- Press Ctrl-Alt-Del to invoke the Close Program dialog box.
- Choose the application that is not responding from the list of current applications.
- Click the End Task button. This returns the system to a functioning state in many cases.
- If after a few minutes the system does not return to its previous stability, reboot the system. This should return it to normal operation.
Lost corporate time trying to fix these as well as rebuilding that which they destroy is almost incomprehensible. A destructive virus costs companies collectively more than the biggest armed bank heist in history. I wonder if the creators of these know what their creations are costing people. In the near future, the laws should change on these and make them severe felonies.
Money is not the only factor in this damage. Many users out there are not sophisticated enough to be armed with the absolute latest virus checkers, if they are even armed at all. I think of an 80-year-old who is writing his life story and gets zapped by one of these and Bam!, down the drain. Or even for those who are sophisticated enough to have virus checkers, they may not update them regularly.
Viruses are bad news. They can totally destroy your data as well as hardware. Most of you have probably spent tons of time configuring your system and you would hate to have to re-install everything. The moral: Make sure that you and those whose PCs you work on have the latest patches from a reputable virus prevention software company.
— By Ted Hamilton, MCP, A+ Certified
|Boot Sector Virus|
stay resident in memory. Memory viruses usually do not spread themselves, but are carried along with other viruses.
|The SETVER utility can be used to make applications think that they are running on the version of DOS that they want to be running on.|
|The most common cause of the "Error in CONFIG.SYS line XX" (where XX is a number) error is a missing file.|
|Both Windows 3.x and Windows 95 require that the HIMEM.SYS driver be loaded in order to access High Memory.|
|If Windows gives you a "Unable to initialize display adapter" error, you should use the Windows setup utility to change the adapter type.|
|Any time Windows 95 encounters an error, it automatically starts the system in safe mode.|
|The most common and usually easiest solution to startup or boot problems is to rerun the setup utility that shipped with your operating system.|
|The message "No Operating System Found" indicates that there is either something wrong with the hard drive of the system or the boot files have been corrupted.|
|General protection faults (GPFs) can be caused by nearly anything, and can almost be considered a catchall for errors.|
|The Microsoft Diagnostics utility can be used to provide information about the system. This information can be valuable in determining if a workstation is capable of being upgraded.|
|DEFRAG is a utility that can be used to reorganize a hard disk drive.|
|ATTRIB.EXE is a utility that can be used to change the attributes of a file or group of files.|
|The Windows Device Manager lists all of the devices that are installed in the system and their properties.|
|Be extremely careful when using the Registry Editor, as nearly any setting of the system can be changed within it and you will never be warned if a change you are making could negatively affect the system.|
|Enabling dynamic memory allocation permits Windows 95 to automatically give an application memory when it needs it and take memory away when the application is not using it.|
|Illegal operations, in short, occur when an application attempts to access hardware or memory directly.|
|The best solution to an application that frequently causes illegal operations errors is to force the application to run in MS-DOS mode.|
|A virus is any program that is designed with the intention of doing harm to a computer. The best defense against virus infection is to purchase a good virus scanning/removing application.|
|Memory viruses are viruses that execute and stay resident in memory.|
|A boot sector virus stays resident by infecting the boot sector of the computer.|
|FAT viruses are usually not spread by themselves and are carried along with other viruses.|
|Macro viruses are viruses that attach themselves to documents in the form of macros.|
|CMOS Viruses are viruses that make themselves resident in the CMOS of the computer and are the most difficult viruses to remove.|
|The most common hoax virus began with the title of "Good Times, " and has resurfaced under many other names.|